Sunday, July 10, 2016

Where Do Random Numbers Come From?

   The random numbers generated in a computer or calculator are not truly random. They are not produced by sampling a physical process that contains a random process, such as flipping a coin or monitoring radioactive decay.

   Computer and calculator-generated random numbers are produced by computing an algorithm. An algorithm, by its very nature, contains no random processes. Still, these computer-generated random numbers pass most statistical tests and are, for most (but not all) practical purposes, random. Random numbers produced by an algorithm are more accurately called pseudo-random numbers.           

   The most commonly used algorithm for generating psuedo-random numbers is the linear congruential generator (LCG). The defining equation for a LCG is

xn+1 = (axn + c )mod m

where xn is called the seed, a is an integer constant called the multiplier, c (also an integer constant) is called the increment, and m is the modulus.
   The project can be viewed and downloaded by clicking on this link:
    A four-page pdf document takes you through a paper and pencil exercise that explains the mathematics of a linear congruential generator and is available, free, on request. Send a request to


  1. I get it now, thanks for clearing it up. I was confused about this for some time, but your post cleared everything up in no time.

  2. there are many websites who are providing things like leather jackets but there are more scammers. in this situation, we have launched a new brand named by who provide the best Black asymmetrical leather jacket for you. buy now and get the best leather quality and designs of 2021.

  3. It has been proved by the Covid 19, various business trends are there for years, fizzy beneath the surface while the newcomers get rich by taking the first mover advantage